Brazilian emission standards for motor vehicles and engines are developed and adopted by the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA) and the Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (CONAMA)—two agencies within the Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA, Ministry of Environment).
Emissions from motor vehicles are reguated under two CONAMA programs :
- PROCONVE—Programa de Controle da Poluição do Ar por Veículos Automotores (Air Pollution Control Program for Motor Vehicles) , and
- PROMOT—Programa de Controle da Poluição do Ar por Motociclos e Veículos Similares (Air Pollution Control Program for Motorcycles and Similar Vehicles)
The programs are focused on new vehicle regulations. However, PROCONVE also covers the development of annual inspection and maintenance (I&M) programs to ensure that vehicle operators maintain their vehicles according to the original specifications and to prevent changes to vehicle emission systems.
PROCONVE emission standards for light-duty vehicles are loosely based on both US and EU regulations, with a number of differences in the limit values and testing requirements. Standards for heavy-duty engines are based on European regulations.
Regulated Engines and Vehicles
Emissions are regulated from the following vehicle categories :
- Light-duty vehicles, including light passenger vehicles (automobiles) and light commerial vehicles,
- Heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and buses),
- Nonroad vehicles, including agricultural and construction machines, and
- Two-wheel vehicles, such as motorcycles and mopeds (Phase M-1 was introduced in 2003, M-2 in 2005, M-3 in 2009, and M-4 in 2011).