Background

The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became effective in 1989. These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass emission limits for both gasoline (1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles, which were gradually tightened during the 1990’s. Since the year 2000, India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled light-duty and for heavy-duty vehicles. Indian own emission regulations still apply to two- and three-wheeled vehicles.

On October 6, 2003, the National Auto Fuel Policy has been announced, which envisages a phased program for introducing Euro 2 - 4 emission and fuel regulations by 2010. The implementation schedule of EU emission standards in India is summarized in Table 1.

Table 1
Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles)
StandardReferenceDateRegion
India 2000Euro 12000Nationwide
Bharat Stage IIEuro 2 2001NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
2003.04NCR*, 11 Cities†
2005.04Nationwide
Bharat Stage IIIEuro 3 2005.04NCR*, 11 Cities†
2010.04Nationwide
Bharat Stage IVEuro 4 2010.04NCR*, 11 Cities†
* National Capital Region (Delhi)
† Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra

The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities.

For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II is applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III standards come in force from April 1, 2010.

Light Duty Vehicles

Emission standards for light-duty vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 2. Ranges of emission limits refer to different categories and classes of vehicles; compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats). When three limits are listed, they refer to vehicles category M & N1 Class I, N1 Class II, and N1 Class III, respectively.

Table 2
Emission Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles, g/km
YearReferenceCOHCHC+NOxNOxPM
Diesel
1992-17.3-32.62.7-3.7---
1996-5.0-9.0-2.0-4.0--
2000Euro 12.72-6.90-0.97-1.70-0.14-0.25
2005†Euro 21.0-1.5-0.7-1.2-0.08-0.17
2010†Euro 30.64
0.80
0.95
-0.56
0.72
0.86
0.50
0.65
0.78
0.05
0.07
0.10
2010‡Euro 40.50
0.63
0.74
-0.30
0.39
0.46
0.25
0.33
0.39
0.025
0.04
0.06
Gasoline
1991-14.3-27.12.0-2.9---
1996-8.68-12.4-3.00-4.36--
1998*-4.34-6.20-1.50-2.18--
2000Euro 12.72-6.90-0.97-1.70--
2005†Euro 22.2-5.0-0.5-0.7--
2010†Euro 32.3
4.17
5.22
0.20
0.25
0.29
-0.15
0.18
0.21
-
2010‡Euro 41.0
1.81
2.27
0.1
0.13
0.16
-0.08
0.10
0.11
-
* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1
‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1

The test cycle has been the NEDC for low-powered vehicles (max. speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle.

Gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000).

Through the BS II (Euro II) stage, engines for use in light-duty vehicles could be alternatively emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 3.

Table 3
Alternative Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Engines, g/kWh
YearReferenceCOHCNOxPM
1992-14.03.518.0-
1996-11.202.4014.4-
2000Euro I4.51.18.00.36*
2005†Euro II4.01.17.00.15
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1

OBD Requirements. OBD I is required from 1 April 2010 (except LPG or CNG-fuelled vehicles and those >3500 kg GVW). OBD II is required from 1 April 2013 for all categories.

Truck and Bus Engines

Emission standards for new heavy-duty engines—applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg—are listed in Table 4.

Table 4
Emission Standards for Diesel Truck and Bus Engines, g/kWh
YearReferenceTestCOHCNOxPM
1992-ECE R4917.3-32.62.7-3.7--
1996-ECE R4911.202.4014.4-
2000Euro IECE R494.51.18.00.36*
2005†Euro IIECE R494.01.17.00.15
2010†Euro IIIESC2.10.665.00.10
ETC5.450.785.00.16
2010‡Euro IVESC1.50.463.50.02
ETC4.00.553.50.03
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1
‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1

More details on Euro I-IV regulations (including testing requirements for heavy-duty gas engines) can be found in the EU heavy-duty engine standards page.

2- And 3-Wheel Vehicles

Emission standards for 2- and 3-wheel vehicles are listed in the following table.

Table 5
Emission Standards for 2- And 3-Wheel Vehicles, g/km
YearStandardCOHCHC+NOxPM
2-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles
199112-308-12--
19964.50-3.60-
20002.00-2.00-
2005.04BS II1.5-1.5-
2010.04BS III1.0-1.0-
3-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles
199112-308-12--
19966.75-5.40-
20004.00-2.00-
2005.04BS II2.25-2.00-
2010.04BS III1.25-1.25-
2- And 3-Wheel Diesel Vehicles
2005.04BS II1.00-0.850.10
2010.04BS III0.50-0.500.05