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Emission Standards


Regulatory Background

Vehicle emission standards are adopted in Singapore by the National Environment Agency and the Ministry of the Environment.

Singapore emission requirements are based on EU, Japanese and US emission standards and test methods, which are incorporated in regulations by reference. Singapore emission regulations are part of the Environmental Protection and Management Act of 1 July 1999, with a number of later amendments.

Emissions are regulated from new light- and heavy-duty onroad vehicles and engines, new off-road diesel engines, as well as new motorcycles and scooters [3735][3734]. The effective dates for new vehicle emission stages given in the following sections refer to the date the vehicle is first registered in Singapore.

Onroad Vehicles and Engines

Emission requirements for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles [3735] with gross vehicle weight (GVW) of 3,500 kg or less are listed in Table 1. Emission standards for engines used in heavy vehicles [3735] with GVW of more than 3,500 kg are summarized in Table 2.

Table 1
Emission requirements for new light-duty vehicles
Petrol Vehicles
1994.07Euro 1 (Directive 91/441/EEC) or Japan standards
2001.01Euro 2 (Directive 96/69/EC)
2014.04Euro 4 (Directive 98/69/EC-B(2005))
2017.09Euro 6 (Regulation (EC) 715/2007) or Japan 2009 plus Euro 6 PN limit for GDI vehicles
Diesel Vehicles
1998.07Euro 1 (Directive 93/59/EEC)
2001.01Euro 2 (Directive 96/69/EC)
2014.01Euro 5 (Regulation (EC) 715/2007) or Japan 2009 standards
2018.01Euro 6 (Regulation (EC) 715/2007) or Japan 2009 plus Euro 6 PN limit
Table 2
Emission requirements for new heavy-duty diesel engines
1998.07Euro I (Directive 91/542/EEC Stage I)
2001.01Euro II (Directive 91/542/EEC Stage II)
2006.10Euro IV (Directive 1999/96/EC-B1(2005))
2014.01Euro V (Directive 2005/55/EC-B2(2008)) or Japan 2009 standards
2018.01Euro VI (Regulation (EC) 595/2009 and (EU) 582/2011) or Japan 2009 plus Euro VI PN limit

Off-Road Diesel Engines

Emission standards for off-road diesel engines [3734] are based on US, EU or Japanese regulations, Table 3. The emission standards do not apply to engines used for the propulsion of ships, locomotives or aircraft.

Table 3
Emission requirements for new off-road diesel engines
2000.08US Tier 1 or EU Stage I or Japan standards
2012.07*US Tier 2 or EU Stage II or Japan Tier I (MOT)
* Engines above 560 kW must meet US Tier 2 standards. Engines below 19 kW must meet either US Tier 2 or Japan Tier I standards.

The same emission permit requirements apply to imports of both new and re-built off-road engines.

In-Use Vehicles

All vehicles are subject to mandatory periodic inspections. During such inspections, emissions are tested to ensure that they comply with the prescribed standard. The emission limits for in-use vehicles are:

  • Petrol driven motor vehicles (other than a motorcycle): CO = 3.5%
  • Motorcycles: CO = 4.5%
  • Diesel driven motor vehicles: Smoke opacity = 40 HSU

It is also an offense for any person to use or permit the use of a smoky vehicle on the road.