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DieselNet: Internal Combustion Engine & Emission Technology

Engine & emission technology online—since 1997

The Log

30 January 2023: Deutz AG and Daimler Truck AG signed agreements giving Deutz access to Daimler engines by the end of the decade, including both Daimler Medium-Duty Engine Generation (MDEG) engines and Daimler Heavy-Duty Engine Platform (HDEP) engines [more ...].

28 January 2023: The SAE Energy & Propulsion Conference—formerly known as Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants meeting—will be held on November 7–9, 2023 in Greenville, South Carolina. SAE International has issued a Call for Papers for the conference [more ...].

16 January 2023: The European auto industry, already under considerable stress due to slow vehicle sales and massive investment in electric vehicles, continues to oppose the proposed Euro 7 emission standards. According to an ACEA analysis, a massive investment in Euro 7 would have only marginal additional environmental benefit—by 2030, the most stringent Euro 7/VII scenario would deliver only an additional 4% NOx reduction for cars and 2% for vans and heavy trucks, while the impact would be zero for buses.

10 January 2023: The Netherlands and Switzerland started particle number-based tests during periodic technical inspections (PN-PTI) of diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filters [more ...].

7 January 2023: The US EPA issued a proposed rule to strengthen the ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The proposal would lower the annual PM2.5 standard to a level between 9 and 10 μg/m3, from the current 12 µg/m3 [more ...].

22 December 2022: The organizers of the CIMAC Congress have published a preliminary program. The Congress will be held in about 6 months (12-16 June 2023) in Busan, Korea.

21 December 2022: Updated summary of California emission standards for light-duty vehicles—added description of the recently adopted Low Emission Vehicle IV (LEV IV) program.

20 December 2022: The US Environmental Protection Agency adopted a final rule—the federal counterpart of the California ‘Omnibus’ low NOx regulation—that sets stronger emission standards for heavy-duty engines starting in model year 2027 [more ...].

16 December 2022: The California Air Resources Board held another public workgroup meeting to discus the development of Tier 5 emission standards for new off-road diesel engines. The meeting covered three main topics: (1) on-board diagnostics (OBD) concepts, (2) emission averaging, banking, and trading (ABT), and (3) idle requirements concepts [more ...].

12 December 2022: Emission standards: Our updated summary of California Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements for light-duty vehicles now includes ZEV requirements for model years 2026 and later that are part of the Advanced Clean Cars II package.

7 December 2022: Registration is now open for the SAE 2023 Heavy-Duty Diesel Sustainable Transport Symposium, coming to Gothenburg, Sweden May 3-4, 2023. Back after 5 years, this symposium will provide insights into the regulatory landscape, state-of-the-art technologies, emission control strategies and more. Review the technical program, mark your calendars to attend and register today!

2 December 2022: IEA’s Energy Efficiency 2022 report finds that energy efficiency actions have accelerated globally in 2022 as governments and consumers have turned to efficiency measures in response to fuel supply disruptions and record-high energy prices. In 2022, the global economy used energy 2% more efficiently than it did in 2021—a rate of improvement almost four times that of the past two years, and almost double the rate of the past five years. At the same time, global energy demand growth has declined sharply and is expected to be close to 1% this year.

23 November 2022: The Diesel Technology Forum (DTF) seeks an industry professional with experience in the emissions, energy, and environmental policy fields. The position involves issues surrounding climate and clean air policy as well as the role of diesel, other internal combustion engines, and cleaner fuels. To learn more about this opportunity email dtf@dieselforum.org.

22 November 2022: Weichai has launched the world’s first commercial diesel engine with base engine’s thermal efficiency of 52.28% and natural gas engine with base engine’s thermal efficiency of 54.16% [more ...].

15 November 2022: Global coal consumption saw a strong rebound in 2021, taking coal demand very close to an all-time high, according to a new report, Coal in Net Zero Transitions, released today by the IEA. Coal‐fired powerplants provided 36% of global electricity generation in 2021, accounting for 65% of global coal consumption, and emitted 10.5 Gt of CO2, or 29% of energy‐related CO2 emissions. Coal use in the industry sector is old as industry itself, increasing throughout the 20th century. Coal demand in industry doubled between 2000 and 2021 to 1,630 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce). Coal was the largest single source of CO2 emissions in the industry sector at 4 Gt CO2 in 2021. The IEA expects global coal demand to increase further in 2022 and decline steeply thereafter.

10 November 2022: The EU Commission proposed Euro 7/VII emission standards that would come into force from July 2025 for cars and vans and from July 2027 for trucks and buses. The proposal includes updated limits for pollutant emissions, a broadened range of driving conditions that are covered by emissions tests, extended emission durability periods (200,000 km for light-duty vehicles), as well as first-ever limits for particulate emissions from brakes and rules on microplastic emissions from tires [more ...].

9 November 2022: The US Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects that low inventories of middle distillate fuels, which are primarily consumed as diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel, will lead to high prices through early 2023. In its Short Term Energy Outlook, the EIA forecasts that diesel prices will remain higher than $5 per gallon for the remainder of the year, and bills for homes that use heating oil will increase by 45% this winter season compared with last winter. US distillate fuels inventories average 17% below the five-year average, and finished October at their lowest levels in any October since 1951.

28 October 2022: The European Council and the Parliament reached a provisional agreement on stricter CO2 emission performance standards for new cars and vans. A 100% CO2 emission reduction target is to become effective from 2035, representing an actual ban on the sales of gasoline and diesel vehicles [more ...]

27 October 2022: The International Energy Agency (IEA) released its World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2022. The IEA expects fossil fuel consumption to peak within about a decade, accelerated by the global energy crisis and the Ukraine conflict. For the first time ever, the IEA WEO scenario based on the current government policies (now called Stated Policies Scenario, STEPS) includes a peak or plateau for every fossil fuel—beginning with coal in the next few years, natural gas by the end of this decade, and oil in the mid-2030s.

Engines & Emissions

The internal combustion engine (ICE) has been a key prime mover that largely replaced earlier prime movers of lesser efficiency—human labor, animal work, the water wheel, the windmill, and the steam engine—thus enabling modern industrial civilization. The most efficient type of ICE, the diesel engine, has been widely used in heavy trucks, construction and agricultural machinery, rail locomotives, ships, and emergency power generation. Its gasoline counterpart has been common in passenger cars. Another related power plant, the gas turbine, has been powering commercial aviation.

For many years, engine developers have been striving to make engines cleaner. Following the three-way catalyst for gasoline engines, clean diesel technologies that enabled near-zero emissions of PM and NOx were developed and introduced in many regions of the world. The focus in technology development has then shifted to climate change and energy efficiency. The benefit of low CO2 emissions, traditionally associated with the diesel engine, is no longer sufficient to meet GHG and fuel economy regulations. New technologies are being developed—such as new combustion techniques, powertrain electrification, and waste heat recovery—that further increase the efficiency not only of the engine itself, but of the entire vehicle. Critically, as GHG emissions occur at all stages of vehicle life, from manufacture through disposal, low-carbon policies must consider life cycle effects of fuels and vehicles.

A major challenge ahead is the approaching end of the Oil Age—not only due to climate policies, but for economic reasons stemming from the depletion of easily recoverable oil resources. As fossil fuels are replaced by alternatives of lesser energetic quality, the future of mobility remains largely unknown. While the world aims to embrace more sustainable mobility, most alternative powertrain technologies depend on quantities of rare and nonrenewable natural resources, and therefore are not truly sustainable. Another often suggested approach—that of fueling the ICE by low-carbon e-fuels—suffers from low efficiency and would require substantial amounts of energy, which seems problematic in an economy that no longer has access to cheap and abundant fossil energy. All this suggests that future mobility will be based on a mix of powertrain technologies, where combustion engines continue to play an important role.

DieselNet—initially an information service on diesel engines and emissions—evolved over the decades to become the central internet resource for technical and business information related to all types of internal combustion engines, their fuels, emissions, and the technologies required by the clean and efficient engines of the future.