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DieselNet: Internal Combustion Engine & Emission Technology

Engine & emission technology online—since 1997

The Log

16 September 2021: The drop in CO2 emissions in 2020, during the initial phase of the Covid-19 crisis, was only temporary and emissions are returning to the pre-pandemic levels, according to the United in Science 2021 report by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Based on preliminary data, from January to July 2021 global emissions in the power and industry sectors were already at the same level or higher than in the same period in 2019, while emissions from road transport still remained about 5% lower. The report also found that the overall emission reductions in 2020 likely reduced the annual increase of the atmospheric concentrations of long-lived GHGs, but this effect was too small to be distinguished from natural variability. At the launch of the report, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres warned that nations are “significantly off-schedule” from the Paris Agreement’s goals.

31 August 2021: The 18th FAD Conference: “Challenge—Exhaust Aftertreatment” will be held in Radebeul, near Dresden, Germany on 15-16 September 2021. This year, the conference will be again a bilingual, German-English event with simultaneous translation. It is time to register for either online participation or to attend in person—if you are in the position to travel.

26 August 2021: Maersk bets on methanol propulsion as a viable approach to reduce GHG emissions from shipping. The company ordered a series of 8 large ocean-going container vessels powered by methanol dual-fuel engines, with the intention to operate the ships on ‘carbon neutral’ methanol [more ...]

23 August 2021: New Technology Guide paper provides a primer on Batteries used in electric vehicles.

18 August 2021: The California Air Resources Board held a public workshop on the Advanced Clean Cars II regulations that will seek to reduce criteria and GHG emissions from new light- and medium-duty vehicles beyond the 2025 model year. The key items on the agenda included changes to the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) regulation and the Low-Emission Vehicle IV (LEV IV) emission standards for criteria pollutants [more ...]

17 August 2021: The updated Business Page of Cambustion reflects the company’s current product portfolio, including fast analyzers for gaseous and particle emission measurement and DPF/GPF testing systems.

9 August 2021: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the first installment of its Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), which will be completed in 2022. The IPCC Working Group I report, Climate Change 2021: the Physical Science Basis, finds that changes in the Earth’s climate have been observed in every region and across the whole climate system. Global surface temperature will continue to increase until at least the mid-century under all emission scenarios considered in the report. Global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C will be exceeded during the 21st century unless deep reductions in CO2, CH4, and other greenhouse gas emissions occur in the coming decades.

28 July 2021: Emission standards: Added summaries of in-service monitoring/conformity testing requirements for European nonroad engines and for China nonroad engines.

27 July 2021: The US DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) 2021 Annual Merit Review (AMR) was held as a virtual event on June 21-24, 2021. The main topic areas included a SuperTruck 2 program update and a number of engine/powertrain and aftertreatment projects [more ...]

26 July 2021: Michigan Custom Machines (MCM)—now on DieselNet—is a worldwide turnkey supplier of powertrain test equipment, specializing in fuel systems component testers such as test machines for fuel pumps, HEUI, CR and EUI injectors, nozzle flow and leakage.

22 July 2021: Our updated summary of European PTI emission tests covers the recent adoption of PTI-PN particulate filter checks using particle number counters in Belgium and Germany.

14 July 2021: The European Commission unveiled an unprecedented climate action plan, dubbed ‘Fit for 55’, that sets a goal to reduce carbon emissions by 55% by 2030, compared to 1990 levels. From 1990 to 2019 the EU reduced emissions by 24%. Under today’s proposal, emission would have to decline by another 31% in just 9 years [more ...]

13 July 2021: BP released its annual Statistical Review of World Energy, which shows that the global primary energy consumption fell by 4.5% and carbon emissions fell by 6% in 2020, as a result of the Covid-19 crisis. While renewables were the only form of energy to see increased demand, wind and solar generation still plays a marginal role in the global energy supply, the data shows [more ...]

9 July 2021: Emission standards—Added summary of Canadian emission standards for compression-ignition stationary engines.

6 July 2021: Hydrogen and other P2X synthetic fuels are expected to power future transportation sectors that are ‘difficult to electrify’—these include most of today’s heavy commercial goods transport as well as construction and agricultural machinery. P2X technologies will be discussed at the #P2X4A: From production to application conference, to be held on 12-13 October 2021 in Frankfurt, Germany. The meeting is planned as an in-person event, where you can actually interact with others, and the registration is now open. The conference is organized by VDMA, who is also one of the signers of the Open Letter: Fossil fuels are the problem, not the engine.

30 June 2021: For your reading pleasure, a summary of the technical sessions from the 24th ETH Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles held online on June 22-24 [more ...]

29 June 2021: Emissions Analytics, now on DieselNet, is the testing and data specialist for real-world emissions.

22 June 2021: While the use of renewable energy has increased, fossil fuels remain a dominant source of energy for the world, according to the Renewables 2021 Global Status Report by REN21. In relative terms, renewables grew almost 5% per year between 2009 and 2019, outpacing fossil fuels (1.7%). But in absolute terms, coal, oil, and natural gas satisfied some 75% of the global energy demand growth over the decade [more ...]

15 June 2021: CIMAC has announced a Call for Papers for the 2022 CIMAC Congress. Next year in Busan, South Korea, the Congress will be held for the 30th time [more ...]

10 June 2021: Updated Technology Guide paper on Crankcase Ventilation—added more discussion on turbocharger impacts of closed crankcase ventilation.

9 June 2021: It is time to register for the Integer Vehicle Emissions Live virtual conference that will be held on June 15-17. Organized by Argus Media, the conference will explore key opportunities to enhance the diesel engine and meet new emission standards, as well as the market trends for AdBlue/DEF. The program includes talks by leading fuel, engine, and vehicle OEMs, as well as updates from regulatory authorities in the USA, UK, and India. DieselNet readers can receive a 10% discount off the standard rates—please contact Anita Agyeman to claim this offer.

30 May 2021: The May 2021 issue of DieselNet Update—our monthly newsletter—is now available for your reading pleasure.

28 May 2021: Emission standards: Added summary of the European Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test for light-duty vehicles.

27 May 2021: Updated Technology Guide paper on Electrically Regenerated Filters—added discussion of the Rypos and the HJS SMF electrically regenerated filters.

22 May 2021: 3DATX Corporation, a developer of miniature portable emission measurement system (Mini-PEMS), updated their DieselNet Business Page to better reflect their current product portfolio.

21 May 2021: Our updated Technology Guide paper on Oil Service Classifications now covers the European Oil Sequences 2021 recently released by ACEA.

19 May 2021: The International Energy Agency (IEA) released its Net Zero by 2050 report, which calls for no new investment in fossil fuel supply. The pathway to reach net-zero GHG emissions by 2050 “remains narrow and extremely challenging”—it contains no new oil and gas fields approved for development, and no new coal mines or mine extensions beyond those that have already been committed to. By 2050, coal consumption would have to fall by 90%, oil by 75%, and natural gas by 55%. The report also envisions that the transition to a net zero energy system by 2050 could be accompanied by “robust economic growth”. Considering that our industrial economy is powered in more than 80% by fossil fuel energy, this plan is indeed very challenging, to say the least. The report reflects a sharp change in course by the IEA—in the past, the agency had issued a number of stark warnings that the global energy investment was falling short of what would be needed to meet future global energy demand.

5 May 2021: The International Energy Agency released a special report that examines the central importance of minerals such as copper, lithium, nickel, cobalt and rare earth elements in a secure and rapid transformation of the global energy sector [more ...]

Engines & Emissions

The internal combustion engine (ICE) has been a key prime mover that largely replaced earlier prime movers of lesser efficiency—human labor, animal work, the water wheel, the windmill, and the steam engine—thus enabling modern industrial civilization. The most efficient type of ICE, the diesel engine, has been widely used in heavy trucks, construction and agricultural machinery, rail locomotives, ships, and emergency power generation. Its gasoline counterpart has been common in passenger cars. Another related power plant, the gas turbine, has been powering commercial aviation.

For many years, engine developers have been striving to make engines cleaner. Following the three-way catalyst for gasoline engines, clean diesel technologies that enabled near-zero emissions of PM and NOx were developed and introduced in many regions of the world. The focus in technology development has then shifted to climate change and energy efficiency. The benefit of low CO2 emissions, traditionally associated with the diesel engine, is no longer sufficient to meet GHG and fuel economy regulations. New technologies are being developed—such as new combustion techniques, powertrain electrification, and waste heat recovery—that further increase the efficiency not only of the engine itself, but of the entire vehicle. Critically, as GHG emissions occur at all stages of vehicle life, from manufacture through disposal, low-carbon policies must consider life cycle effects of fuels and vehicles.

A major challenge ahead is the approaching end of the Oil Age—not only due to climate policies, but for economic reasons stemming from the depletion of easily recoverable oil resources. As fossil fuels are replaced by alternatives of lesser energetic quality, the future of mobility remains largely unknown. While the world aims to embrace more sustainable mobility, most alternative powertrain technologies depend on quantities of rare and nonrenewable natural resources, and therefore are not truly sustainable. Another often suggested approach—that of fueling the ICE by low-carbon e-fuels—suffers from low efficiency and would require substantial amounts of energy, which seems problematic in an economy that no longer has access to cheap and abundant fossil energy. All this suggests that future mobility will be based on a mix of powertrain technologies, where combustion engines continue to play an important role.

DieselNet—initially an information service on diesel engines and emissions—evolved over the decades to become the central internet resource for technical and business information related to all types of internal combustion engines, their fuels, emissions, and the technologies required by the clean and efficient engines of the future.