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Emission Standards

Canada: Heavy-Duty Engines & Vehicles

Heavy-Duty Engines

Diesel Engines. The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (SOR/2003-2) [3289] introduced two sets of emisison standards for heavy-duty diesel truck and bus engines, that are harmonized with the US standards:

  • Phase 1 standards—equivalent to US 2004 standards—apply starting with the 2004 model year. As with the US EPA, there are two options for NOx+NMHC limits and tighter standards for urban busses.
  • Phase 2 standards—equivalent to US 2007 standards—apply starting with the 2007 model year.

In the USA, the Phase 2 NMHC, CO and PM standards apply in 2007 and the NOx standard is phased-in from 2007 to 2010. In the case of a standard that is set out in the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) to be phased in over a period of time, the standard comes into effect in Canada in the model year for which the CFR specifies that the standard applies to 100% of that class, and continues to apply until another standard comes into effect that applies to 100% of that class. This creates a difference in Canadian and US standards during this phase in period.

There are no emission averaging, banking and trading options for heavy-duty engines in Canada.

Otto Engines. The standards for heavy-duty Otto cycle engines are outlined below. Phase 2 standards are the same as those for heavy-duty diesel engines and apply in 2008. As with the heavy-duty diesel engine standards, the NOx standards in the USA are phased in and apply to 100% of engines in 2010. Similar comments apply here as those noted above for heavy-duty diesel engines during this phase-in period.

Table 2
Heavy-Duty Otto Engine Emission Standards, g/bhp-hr
 GVWR kg (lb)NOxNMHCNOx + NMHCCOPM
Pre-2005≤ 6,350 (14,000)4.01.1-14.4-
> 6,350 (14,000)4.01.9-37.1-
Phase 1 (2005)≤ 6,350 (14,000)--1.014.4-
> 6,350 (14,000)--1.037.1-
Phase 2 (2008 - 2010)≥ 3,856 (8,500)0.20.14-14.40.01

Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles. A complete heavy-duty vehicle is one with a gross vehicle weight rating of 6350 kg (14,000 pounds) or less and that is powered by an Otto-cycle engine and with the load carrying device or container attached after it leaves the control of the manufacturer. As with the US EPA requirements, Phase 1 standards apply starting in the 2005 model year. Because the Phase 2 standards are phased in during 2008 in the USA and apply to 100% of US vehicles only in 2009, similar comments to those made previously for heavy-duty diesel engines apply. The standards for these vehicles are outlined in the following table:

Table 3
Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Standards, g/mi
GVWR kg (lb)NOxNMHCHCHOCOPM
Phase 1 (2005) 3,856 - 4,536
(8,500 - 10,000)
0.90.28-7.3-
4,536 - 6,350
(10,000 - 14,000)
10.33-8.1-
Phase 2 (2008 - 2009) 3,856 - 4,536
(8,500 - 10,000)
0.20.1950.0327.30.02
4,536 - 6,350
(10,000 - 14,000)
0.40.230.048.10.02

Heavy-Duty Vehicles. On-road heavy-duty vehicles other than complete heavy-duty vehicles must meet the heavy-duty engine requirements for the particular engine installed in that vehicle. Alternatively, heavy-duty diesel vehicles of 6,350 kg (14,000 lb) GVWR or less can conform to the standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

There are no emission averaging, banking and trading options for heavy-duty vehicles or complete heavy-duty vehicles in Canada.