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Emission Standards » Canada

Heavy-Duty Engines & Vehicles

Heavy-Duty Engines

Diesel Engines. The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (SOR/2003-2) [3289] introduced two sets of emisison standards for heavy-duty diesel truck and bus engines, that are harmonized with the US standards:

  • Phase 1 standards—equivalent to US 2004 standards—apply starting with the 2004 model year. As with the US EPA, there are two options for NOx+NMHC limits and tighter standards for urban busses.
  • Phase 2 standards—equivalent to US 2007 standards—apply starting with the 2007 model year.

In the USA, the Phase 2 NMHC, CO and PM standards apply in 2007 and the NOx standard is phased-in from 2007 to 2010. In the case of a standard that is set out in the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) to be phased in over a period of time, the standard comes into effect in Canada in the model year for which the CFR specifies that the standard applies to 100% of that class, and continues to apply until another standard comes into effect that applies to 100% of that class. This creates a difference in Canadian and US standards during this phase in period. However, because every engine that is covered by an EPA certificate and that is sold concurrently in Canada and the US must conform to the EPA certification and in-use standards, the differences in emission profiles of engines sold during this period are expected to be small.

There are no emission averaging, banking and trading options for heavy-duty engines in Canada.

Otto Engines. The standards for heavy-duty Otto cycle engines are outlined below. Phase 2 standards are the same as those for heavy-duty diesel engines and apply in 2008. As with the heavy-duty diesel engine standards, the NOx standards in the USA are phased in and apply to 100% of engines in 2010. Similar comments apply here as those noted above for heavy-duty diesel engines during this phase-in period.

Table 2
Heavy-Duty Otto Engine Emission Standards, g/bhp-hr
 GVWR kg (lb)NOxNMHCNOx + NMHCCOPM
Pre-2005≤ 6,350 (14,000)4.01.1-14.4-
> 6,350 (14,000)4.01.9-37.1-
Phase 1 (2005)≤ 6,350 (14,000)--1.014.4-
> 6,350 (14,000)--1.037.1-
Phase 2 (2008 - 2010)≥ 3,856 (8,500)0.20.14-14.40.01

Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles. A complete heavy-duty vehicle is one with a gross vehicle weight rating of 6350 kg (14,000 pounds) or less and that is powered by an Otto-cycle engine and with the load carrying device or container attached after it leaves the control of the manufacturer. As with the US EPA requirements, Phase 1 standards apply starting in the 2005 model year. Because the Phase 2 standards are phased in during 2008 in the USA and apply to 100% of US vehicles only in 2009, similar comments to those made previously for heavy-duty diesel engines apply. The standards for these vehicles are outlined in the following table:

Table 3
Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Standards, g/mi
GVWR kg (lb)NOxNMHCHCHOCOPM
Phase 1 (2005) 3,856 - 4,536
(8,500 - 10,000)
0.90.28-7.3-
4,536 - 6,350
(10,000 - 14,000)
10.33-8.1-
Phase 2 (2008 - 2009) 3,856 - 4,536
(8,500 - 10,000)
0.20.1950.0327.30.02
4,536 - 6,350
(10,000 - 14,000)
0.40.230.048.10.02

Heavy-Duty Vehicles. On-road heavy-duty vehicles other than complete heavy-duty vehicles must meet the heavy-duty engine requirements for the particular engine installed in that vehicle. Alternatively, heavy-duty diesel vehicles of 6,350 kg (14,000 lb) GVWR or less can conform to the standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

There are no emission averaging, banking and trading options for heavy-duty vehicles or complete heavy-duty vehicles in Canada.