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Emission Standards » Canada

Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engines

The Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations were promulgated on November 19, 2003. The Regulations apply to off-road engines of model year 2005 and later that use sparkplugs and develop no more than 19 kW (25 hp) of power. The emissions standards are divided into seven classes based on engine displacement and usage in either a handheld or non-handheld application as shown in Table 1.

Table 1
Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission Standards, g/kWh
ClassEngine TypeDisplacement (D), cm3DateHC + NOxbNMHC + NOxCO
I-ANon-handheldD <66200550-610
I-B66≤ D <10020054037610
I100≤ D <2252005116.1a-519a
IID ≥225200512.111.3610
IIIHandheldD <20200550-805
IV20≤ D <50200550-805
VD ≥502005119-603
a - Standards apply only when the engine is new
b - Some engine classes include a combined NMHC+NOx standard that applies only when the engine is fueled by natural gas
1 - For models already in production at coming into force of the Regulations
2 - For models initially produced after coming into force of the Regulations

Engines must meet the emission standards throughout their useful life (with the exception of pre-2005 Class I engines, as indicated in the table). At the time of engine certification, a manufacturer can select one of three specified useful life periods, which range from 50 to 1000 hours depending on the engine class. For example, for a class I engine, the useful life can be 125, 250 or 500 hours. The selection of useful life duration must be supported by technical information. Longer useful lives, which entail a higher manufacturing cost, are typically found in commercial equipment while home consumer products are often designed for shorter useful lives.

Alternative less stringent emission standards, consistent with those available under the CFR, are available:

  • for HC+NOx levels for engines in machines used exclusively in wintertime, such as ice augers and snow-blowers; These engines are subject to the applicable CO standard.
  • for replacement engines which are engines manufactured exclusively to replace an existing engine in a machine for which no current model year engine with physical or performance characteristics necessary for the operation of the machine exists;
  • for class III, IV and V when less than 2000 engines of a particular model are sold in total in Canada to accommodate Canada-only niche products.

On February 4, 2011, Environment Canada adopted Marine Spark-Ignition Engine, Vessel and Off-Road Recreational Vehicle Emission Regulations . These emission regulations apply to outboard engines, personal watercraft, snowmobiles, off-highway motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles. Most of the regulatory provisions came into force from April 5, 2011. The standards align with corresponding US EPA rules for marine spark-ignition engines and off-road recreational engines and vehicles. An earlier MOU with the Canadian Marine Manufacturers Association covered only marine spark ignition engines and under its terms, engine manufacturers voluntarily committed to supply engines designed to meet United States federal emissions standards into Canada starting with the 2001 model year.

Environment Canada plans to propose regulations to address emissions from large spark-ignition engines used in industrial applications such as forklifts and ice re-surfacing machines in the future.