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Emission Standards

Russia and EAEU

Regulatory Background

Russian emission and fuel regulations are based on UN ECE regulations and European Union standards, which apply to both manufactured and imported vehicles. Russia introduced mandatory Euro 2 standards in 2006 and gradually increased the requirements—Euro 5 standards came into effect in 2014. It should be noted that dates related to vehicle emission requirements and the associated fuels do not necessarily align.

Since 2013, Russian emission regulations have been applicable to member states of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU, formerly Eurasian Customs Union), which includes Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. The EAEU technical regulations are adopted by the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC).

Russian emission standards for light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty engines are outlined in Resolution No. 609: Special Technical Regulations on Requirements for Emissions of Hazardous (Polluting) Substances by Vehicles, first adopted in 2005, and its subsequent amendments. At the EAEU level, the regulations are outlined in the Technical Regulation “On the safety of wheeled vehicles”, adopted in 2011 [3732].

Light-Duty Vehicles

The implementation schedule of emission standards for light-duty vehicles, based on Euro standards, is summarized in Table 1. Mandatory implementation began with Euro 2 in 2006. Production of Euro 1 cars was voluntary.

Table 1
Emission requirements for light-duty vehicles
New TypesAll Vehicles
1999.01aEuro 1 (ECE R83.02)
2006.04Euro 2 (ECE R83.03)
2008.01Euro 3 (ECE R83.05 Stage III)
2010.012014.01Euro 4 (ECE R83.05 Stage IV)
2014.012016.01Euro 5
a voluntary

Heavy-Duty Engines

Emission requirements for heavy-duty engines, based on heavy-duty Euro standards, are shown in Table 2. Mandatory implementation began with Euro II in 2006. Production of Euro I heavy-duty engines was voluntary.

Table 2
Emission requirements for heavy-duty engines
New TypesAll Vehicles
1999aEuro I / Ecological Class 1 (ECE R49.02)
2006Euro II / Ecological Class 2 (ECE R49.02 Stage 2)
2008Euro III / Ecological Class 3 (ECE R49.04-A)
20102013Euro IV / Ecological Class 4 (ECE R49.04-B1)
20142018Euro V / Ecological Class 5 (ECE R49.04-B2 C)
a voluntary

Mobile Nonroad Engines

While Russia has adopted some European emission standards for mobile nonroad engines, Table 3, progress has been delayed, as some of the EAEU countries have been slow in updating emission standards from Stage 0. Russia therefore had to return to Stage 0 in order to adhere to Union protocols. The Russian government planned to introduce Stage III in January 2014 in Russia, but the date has not been officially confirmed. A Russian GOST standard was developed in 2012 but it was not officially published.

A new EAEU standard, TR-TS 031-2012 "On the safety of agricultural and forestry tractors and the associated trailers", has been developed for tractors. The standard introduces Stage IIIA or IIIB limits effective from 15 February 2017, but the date has not been officially confirmed.

Table 3
Emission requirements for mobile nonroad engines
DateStandardEU Equivalent
2000GOST R41 96-99Stage I (Dir 77/537/EC and Dir 97/68/EC, ECE R24 test)
2014.01aGOST R41 96-2011Stage III
2017.02.15aTR-TS 031-2012bStage IIIA for engines below 37 kW; Stage IIIB above 37 kW
a not officially confirmed
b standard applicable to agricultural and forestry tractors

Industrial, Locomotive and Marine Engines

In May 2014, emission standards were published for new and overhauled ship, diesel and industrial reciprocating internal combustion engines [3733]. The standards do not apply to automotive, tractor and aircraft engines. The standards are applicable in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

The standards, effective from July 2014, introduced two sets of emission limits that depend on the engine production date. The emission limits are summarized in the following tables. Emission testing is based on the ISO 8178 procedures.

Table 4
Emission limits for industrial, locomotive and marine engines, g/kWh
Date of ProductionCOHCNOx*
Before 20163.
2016 and later1.
* NOx limits for ship engines are shown in Table 5
Table 5
NOx emission limits for marine engines, g/kWh
Date of ProductionEngine Speed N, rpm
N ≤ 130130 < N ≤ 2000N > 2000
Before 201117.045 · n-0.29.8
2011 and later14.444 · n-0.237.7

Engines that have undergone major repairs must meet the above emission limits, multiplied by a correction factor of 1.2 for CO, 1.25 for HC, and 0.95 for NOx.