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Technical & scientific resources on the web: Energy, fuels, engines, and emissions

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Electric vehicles in Europe from 2010 to 2017: is full-scale commercialisation beginning?

JRC Science for Policy Report, 2018

In 2017, almost 300,000 electric passenger cars were registered in Europe, against around 1,400 in 2010. The highest numbers were registered in Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, France and the UK. The e-vehicle market is almost equally divided between battery-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid cars. Despite the increasing numbers in market penetration, barriers to mass market uptake of e-vehicles still exist, including the lack of publicly accessible recharging points, the cost of electric vehicles, and issues linked to the driving range and high maintenance costs.
Electric vehicles from life cycle and circular economy perspectives

European Environment Agency, 2018

Battery electric cars emit less greenhouse gases and air pollutants over their entire life cycle than petrol and diesel cars, according to a new European Environment Agency (EEA) report. The result of the comparison is less favorable for electric cars when looking at the current impacts of their production on ecosystems and the toxicity of the materials involved. These impacts are mostly due to the extraction and processing of copper, nickel and critical raw materials.
Use of remote-sensing technology for vehicle emissions monitoring and control

The International Council on Clean Transportation, 2018

A concise introduction to the use of remote sensing in regulating and controlling pollution from on-road vehicles.
Coal 2018: Analysis and forecasts to 2023

International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 2018

After two years of decline, global coal demand grew by 1% in 2017 to 7585 Mt as stronger global economic growth increased both industrial output and electricity use. Driven by strong coal power generation in China and India, coal demand is expected to grow again in 2018. In particular, global coal power generation increased by over 250 TWh, or around 3%, and accounted for about 40% of the additional power generation worldwide. Coal kept its share in the power mix at 38% after some years of decline.
Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration

US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2018

To achieve goals for climate and economic growth, “negative emissions technologies” (NETs) that remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the air will need to play a significant role in mitigating climate change—according to a new report by the National Academies of Sciences. Four land-based NETs are ready for large-scale deployment at costs competitive with emissions mitigation strategies, the report says. These technologies include reforestation; changes in forest management; changes in agricultural practices that enhance soil carbon storage; and bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration. However, these four NETs cannot yet provide enough carbon removal at reasonable cost without substantial unintended harm.
Charging the Future: Challenges and Opportunities for Electric Vehicle Adoption

Harvard Kennedy School: Belfer Center, 2018

Electric vehicles (EVs) have advanced significantly this decade, owing in part to decreasing battery costs. Yet EVs remain more costly than gasoline fueled vehicles over their useful life. This paper analyzes the additional advances that will be needed—such as advances in battery technology and charging infrastructure—if electric vehicles are to significantly penetrate the passenger vehicle fleet.
The Future of Petrochemicals

International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 2018

Petrochemicals—components derived from oil and gas that are used in all sorts of daily products such as plastics, fertilizers, packaging, clothing, digital devices, medical equipment, detergents and tires—are becoming the largest drivers of global oil demand, in front of cars, planes and trucks.
Decarbonization Potential of Electrofuels in the European Union

The International Council on Clean Transportation, 2018

Electrofuels, also known as “power-to-liquids,” “power-to-gas,” “e-fuels” and “e-gas,” can deliver greenhouse gas savings compared to petroleum when they are produced using low-carbon electricity. This study updates a prior analysis on the economic viability of electrofuels in the EU and assesses the lifecycle GHG performance of these fuels.
Global Gas Report 2018

Snam, Italy, 2018

Developed by the International Gas Union, Boston Consulting Group and Snam, this report assesses the role played by natural gas in the global energy mix and the opportunity it offers to meet growing energy demand.
Shale Reality Check: Drilling Into the U.S. Government’s Rosy Projections for Shale Gas & Tight Oil Production Through 2050

Post Carbon Institute, Corvallis, Oregon, 2018

A report by David Hughes assesses the viability of the US EIA projections of the future shale oil and gas production and concludes that the official figures are overly optimistic. According the report, the EIA mischaracterizes the source of recent productivity improvements (by assuming it’s mostly technology, not high-grading); extrapolates recent well productivity improvements far into the future, even though evidence suggests this is unwise; assumes that large areas that are not currently being drilled will be highly productive; and ignores price and profitability.
Black carbon emissions and fuel use in global shipping, 2015

The International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, USA, 2017

An updated global inventory of black carbon emissions from the global shipping sector.
Fuel Consumption Standards for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in India

Policy Update, ICCT, Washington, USA, 2017

A summary of Indian fuel-efficiency standards for commercial heavy-duty vehicles that were published in August 2017.
Concawe Market Fuel Survey: 2015-2016

Concawe, 2017

Concawe conducted a market fuel survey on petrol and diesel qualities, taking samples from seventeen European countries during mid-2015 – early 2016. A total of 244 samples (100 petrol and 144 diesel) were sampled—petrol samples were collected in the summer of 2015 and the diesels were sampled in the winter of 2016. The report summarizes the data by country and illustrates the data in charts.
Roadmap to a de-fossilized powertrain

Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany, 2017

A study by Bosch examines the potential of e-fuels—synthetic liquid fuels produced using renewable electrical energy—to reduce GHG emissions from transportation.
EMSA Study on the use of Fuel Cells in Shipping

European Maritime Safety Agency, Lisbon, Portugal, 2017

A study released by the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) in partnership with DNV-GL identifies the leading fuel cell technologies with potential for maritime applications. The study reviews 23 maritime fuel cell projects conducted over the past 16 years.
Software Defined Emissions: A hacker’s review of Dieselgate

Chaos Computer Club, Hamburg, Germany, 2017

A technical talk on how to reverse-engineer electronic control units in order to document what was left apparently intentionally undocumented by the vendor—including how Volkswagen tweaked their cycle detection code while already being investigated by the EPA, how different the Volkswagen approach is really to the rest of the industry, and some trivia on how the “acoustic function“ got its name.
Ultra-Low NOx Natural Gas Vehicle Evaluation: ISL G NZ

University of California Riverside, 2016

A report by the University of California-Riverside finds that the 8.9 L Cummins Westport ISL G Near Zero natural gas engine exceeds or meets the certification emission standards over a full range of duty cycles.
Third Report to Congress: Highlights of the Diesel Emission Reduction Program

US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2016

A detailed description of the US EPA DERA program to reduce emissions from in-use diesel engines; the third report submitted by the EPA to Congress.
Second Report to Congress: Highlights of the Diesel Emissions Reduction Program

US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2012

A detailed description of the US EPA DERA program to reduce emissions from in-use diesel engines; the second report submitted by the EPA to Congress.
Report to Congress: Highlights of the Diesel Emissions Reduction Program

US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2009

A detailed description of the US EPA DERA program to reduce emissions from in-use diesel engines; the first report submitted by the EPA to Congress.
Method 5040: Diesel Particulate Matter (as Elemental Carbon)

NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), 4th Edition, 2003

NIOSH standard method for determination of diesel particulate exposures as elemental carbon.

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