China: Cars and Light Trucks
Chinese emission standards for new passenger cars and light-duty commercial vehicles up to China 6 are based on European regulations. Light-duty vehicle categories are based on the EU classification with some changes:
- Type 1 vehicles: M1 vehicles for no more than 6 passengers including driver, and GVW ≤ 2.5 ton,
- Type 2 vehicles: Other light-duty vehicles (including N1 light commercial vehicles) further divided into three classes based on the reference mass (RM):
- Class I: RM ≤ 1305 kg
- Class II: 1305 kg < RM ≤ 1760 kg
- Class III: RM > 1760 kg
The implementation schedule is listed in Table 1. The nationwide dates generally refer to new type approvals—first registration of existing vehicle models is typically allowed for one more year. The nationwide China 5 and 6 regulations  provide one implementation date, applicable to both new type approvals and to first registration. Beijing has had a ban on the sale and registration of light-duty diesel vehicles since 2000.
|China 1||2000.01 (2000.07†)||Nationwide||Euro 1|
|China 2||2002.08||Beijing||Euro 2|
|PI: 2004.07a (2005.07†)|
|China 3||2005.12||Beijing||European OBD from 2006.12||Euro 3|
|2006.10||Guangzhou||With European OBD|
|2007.01||Shanghai||With European OBD|
|2007.07||Nationwide||EOBD: Type 1 2008.07; Type 2 2010.07|
|China 4||2008.03||Beijing||Euro 4|
|China 5||2013.02||Beijing||Euro 5|
|China 6a||2020.07||Nationwide||Euro 6|
PI - positive ignition (gasoline, natural gas); CI - compression ignition (diesel)
† production conformity
a first registration
b For public buses, sanitary and postal vehicles
c 11 Eastern provinces only (Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong and Hainan)
d All vehicles
China 3 to China 5
Emission limits up to China 5 are shown in Table 2 for gasoline vehicles and in Table 3 for diesel vehicles.
|China 3||Type 1||2.30||0.20||-||0.15||-|
|China 4||Type 1||1.00||0.10||-||0.08||-|
|China 5||Type 1||1.00||0.100||0.068||0.060||0.0045a|
|a - applies only to direct injection positive ignition engines|
New gasoline vehicles up to and including China 5 must also meet an evaporative emission limit of 2 g/test (SHED).
|China 3||Type 1||0.64||0.56||0.50||0.050|
|China 4||Type 1||0.50||0.30||0.25||0.025|
|China 5||Type 1||0.50||0.230||0.180||0.0045||6×1011|
Durability requirements are 80,000 km for China 3, and 100,000 km for China 4 and 5.
China 6 regulations were proposed in May 2016  and finalized in December 2016 . An English language summary of the China 6 regulation is available elsewhere . Table 4 summarizes the final China 6 limits. China 6 standards are fuel neutral and the same limits apply for gasoline and diesel vehicles.
|China 6a||Type 1||0.700||0.100||0.068||0.060||0.020||0.0045||6×1011|
|China 6b||Type 1||0.500||0.050||0.035||0.035||0.020||0.0030||6×1011|
Some important details of the China 6 standard include:
- China 6b targets reductions of 50% for hydrocarbons, 40% for NOx and 33% for PM over Euro 6 levels
- RDE requirements apply starting July 2023 (China 6b implementation date) with China 6b NOx and PN limits and a conformity factor of 2.1. Cold starts are excluded and only the moving average window data evaluation method is used.
- Testing is to be carried out over the WLTP cycle
- Unlike Euro 6, an N2O limit is applied
- China 6 OBD requirements are based on California OBD II regulations
China 6 gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative emission (SHED) limit 0.70 g for Type 1 and Type 2, Category I vehicles, 0.90 for Type 2, Category II vehicles and 1.20 g for Type 2, Category III vehicles.
Durability requirements for China 6 are 160,000 km.
Beijing 6 Proposal
In 2015, Beijing proposed standards based on US Tier 3 regulations, Table 5 . These proposed standards appear set to be withdrawn when the China 6 regulation is finalized.
|Beijing 6||M1, M2, M3||FTP75||1000||43.5||1.86|
|M1, M2, M3, N1||SC03||2000||43.5||-|
|M1, M2, M3, N1||HWFET||-||43.5||-|
The Beijing 6 proposal would have required durability of 200,000 km .