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Emission Standards

China: Nonroad Engines

Regulatory Background

The implementation of China’s emission standards for diesel and small spark ignition (SI) mobile nonroad engines is summarized in Table 1. Some of the important regulatory steps include:

  • Diesel Stage I/II standards: The first emission standards for mobile nonroad diesel engines (GB 20891-2007) were adopted in 2007 [2880]. The requirements were based on the European Stage I/II nonroad emission standards. However, the Chinese regulation also covered small diesel engines, which were not subject to the European standards. Emission limits for the smallest engines were consistent with US Tier 1/2 nonroad standards.
  • Diesel Stage III/IV standards: In May 2014, the MEP published GB 20891-2014 specifying China Stage III emission standards and proposed limits for Stage IV [3053] that are based on the EU Stage IIIA and EU Stage IIIB requirements, respectively. Limits for the smallest and largest engines are based on US Tier 2 requirements. The Stage III standards became effective from 2014.10 for new types and from 2015.10 for all engines. The proposed limits for Stage IV included in GB20891-2014 were further supplemented with a proposal issued in February 2018 with a wall flow DPF requirement. Engine makers were also encouraged to meet standards based on EU Stage V standards. A Stage IV implementation date of 2020.01 was proposed [3962].
  • Smoke emissions: In September 2018, a test procedure and limits for measuring smoke emissions from non-road equipment and vehicles, GB 36886-2018, was published. The procedure became effective in December 2018.
  • Small SI Stage I/II standards: In December 2010, emissions standards for mobile nonroad spark ignition engines < 19 kW were published (GB26133-2010), with limits based on EU and US standards. Stage I requirements became effective 2010.03. Stage II implementation was different for non-handheld/handheld engines with requirements for new engine types starting 2013.01/2015.01 respectively and all new engines 2014.01/2016.01 respectively [3963][3964].
Table 1
Implementation of national nonroad engine emission standards
Year0708091011121314151617181920+
DieselII/IIIIII/IIIIIIIV
Small SI; HHIII
Small SI; nHHIII

Diesel Engines

Stage I/II Emission Standards

The standards, Table 2, were based on European regulations. The compliance dates were:

  • Stage I standards: 2007.10
  • Stage II standards: 2009.10
Table 2
Stage I/II standards for nonroad diesel engines, g/kWh
Max Power (P), kWCOHCNOxHC+NOxPM
Stage I†
130 ≤ P ≤ 5605.01.39.2-0.54
75 ≤ P < 1305.01.39.2-0.7
37 ≤ P < 756.51.39.2-0.85
18 ≤ P < 378.42.110.8-1.0
8 ≤ P < 188.4--12.9-
0 < P < 812.3--18.4-
Stage II
130 ≤ P ≤ 5603.51.06.0-0.2
75 ≤ P < 1305.01.06.0-0.3
37 ≤ P < 755.01.37.0-0.4
18 ≤ P < 375.51.58.0-0.8
8 ≤ P < 186.6--9.50.8
0 < P < 88.0--10.51.0
† Stage I limits shall be achieved before any exhaust aftertreatment device.

Emissions were measured over a steady-state test cycle equivalent to the ISO 8178 C1, 8-mode test. Other ISO 8178 test cycles could be used for selected applications.

Stage III/IV Emission Standards

GB20891-2014 included the Stage III limits as well as proposed Stage IV limits, Table 3. The Stage III limits are based on EU Stage IIIA standards and the proposed Stage IV limits on EU Stage IIIB standards but with the addition of engines with net power >560 kW and < 37 kW. Limits for engines above 560 kW and under 37 kW are based on US Tier 2 requirements. Stage III engines and constant speed Stage IV engines are measured over the ISO 8178. Variable speed Stage IV engines were to be tested over the NRTC. Durability requirements are shown in Table 4 [3965].

The compliance dates for Stage III diesel engine standards were [3966]:

  • New engine types: 2014.10
  • All new engines: 2015.10
  • After 2016.04, all new non-road mobile machinery required a Stage III engine
  • After 2016.12, all new agricultural machinery required a Stage III engine
Table 3
Stage III and proposed Stage IV limits
StagePowerCOHCNOxHC+NOxPM
kWg/kWh
Stage IIIP>5603.56.40.20
130≤P≤5603.54.00.20
75≤P<1305.04.00.30
37≤P<755.04.70.40
P<375.57.50.60
Proposed Stage IVP>5603.50.403.5, 0.67*0.10
130≤P≤5603.50.192.00.025
75≤P<1305.00.193.30.025
56≤P<755.00.193.30.025
37≤P<565.04.70.025
P<375.57.50.60
* Applicable to mobile generator sets with Pmax > 900 kW diesel engines
Table 4
Stage III/IV durability requirements
Power, kWRated speed, rpmEffective life, hMinimum durability test duration, h
P≥37All80002000
19≤P<37Variable speed50001250
Constant speed < 3000
Constant speed ≥ 30003000750
P<19All

Updated Stage IV Proposal of 2018

The Stage IV requirements proposed in GB 20891-2014, Table 3, were further clarified and supplemented with additional requirements through a proposal issued 2018.02. This proposal supplemented the Stage IV requirements in Table 3 with a DPF requirement (with a maximum PN limit of 5×1012 #/kWh). Engine manufacturers were also encouraged to instead meet limits based on EU Stage V limits, Table 5. All nonroad engines produced on or after 2020.01 would be required to meet the updated Stage IV requirements [3962]. In 2018, some uncertainty existed over the exact implementation date with some industry sources suggesting it could be delayed until 2021.

Table 5
Voluntary emission limits proposed in 2018
PowerCOHCNOxHC+NOxPMPN
kWg/kWh#/kWh
P>5603.50.193.5, 0.67*0.045
130≤P≤5603.50.190.400.0151×1012
56≤P<1305.00.190.400.0151×1012
37≤P<565.04.70.0151×1012
19≤P<375.04.70.0151×1012
P<195.57.50.40
* Applicable to mobile generator sets with Pmax > 900 kW diesel engines

Other proposed provisions include:

  • Constant speed diesel engines would be tested over the NRSC and variable speed engines over the NRTC.
  • Non-road mobile machinery equipped with 37 kW to 560 kW diesel engines are to be equipped with a wall-flow particulate filter (DPF).
  • PN emissions should not exceed 5×1012 #/kWh.
  • There should be no visible smoke during DPF regeneration.
  • Average ammonia emissions are not to exceed 25 ppm.
  • If the engine is equipped with a vanadium containing SCR catalyst, data demonstrating that vanadium emissions will not occur during the useful life is required and SCR inlet temperatures above 550°C are not allowed.
  • PEMS testing requirements.

In-use Smoke Emissions

In the September 2018, Limits and measurement methods for exhaust smoke from non-road mobile machinery equipped with diesel engine, GB 36886-2018, was published [4023]. This standard specifies the exhaust smoke limit and measurement method for on-site measurements of non-road diesel mobile machinery and vehicles as well as new and imported equipment. It covers non-road diesel fueled vehicles and machinery equipped with variable as well as constant speed engines. Smoke measurements can be carried out with an opacity meter according to GB 3847 [4022] or using the Ringelmann method as described in an appendix to GB 36886-2018. The corresponding limits are summarized in Table 6.

Table 6
Exhaust smoke limits
CategoryRated net power, PmaxLight absorption coefficientaRingelmann Blackness
kW1/m
Class IPmax < 193.001
19 ≤ Pmax < 372.00
37 ≤ Pmax ≤ 5601.61
Class IIPmax < 192.001
19 ≤ Pmax < 371.001 (no visible smoke)
Pmax ≥ 370.80
Class IIIPmax < 370.801 (no visible smoke)
Pmax ≥ 370.50
a for engines operating above 1700 m, the limit can be increased by 0.25 1/m

Class I limits apply to machinery with Stage I and II diesel engines (GB 20891-2007) and Class II limits to machinery with Stage III and subsequent diesel engines (GB 20891-2014). Class III limits can be used to limit emissions in low emission zones defined by the government.

On-site smoke measurements are carried out during the normal usage cycle of the equipment. If this is not possible, the free acceleration method (GB 3847) can be used. Opacity meter measurements are carried out with a sampling frequency no less than 1 Hz and the maximum reading is taken as the test result. Ringelmann readings can be taken by video or other similar method with the maximum Ringelmann rating taken as the test result.

Small SI Engines

Stage I/II Emission Standards

Stage I and II emissions requirements for small nonroad spark ignition engines are found in GB26133-2010 [3967]. This standard applies to (but is not limited to) spark ignition engines with a net power of no more than 19 kW for use in nonroad mobile machinery such as: lawn mowers, chain saws, generators, water pumps and brush cutters. Engines with a net power greater than 19 kW but a working volume of no more than 1 L may be certified as well. It does not apply to engines for the following purposes: for driving boats; for underground mining or underground mining equipment; for emergency rescue equipment; for recreational vehicles such as sleds, motocross and all-terrain vehicles; engines built for export.

The application dates are as follows:

  • Stage I: New types/all new non-handheld and hand-held engines 2011.03/2012.03, respectively.
  • Stage II:
    • New types/all new non-handheld engines 2013.01/2014.01.
    • New types/all new hand-held engines 2015.01/2016.01, respectively.

Testing is in accordance with ISO 8178 (GB/T 8190.4). Emission requirements are based on EU Directive 97/68/EC and its amendments found in 2002/88/EC as well as US EPA Phase 1 and 2 regulations (40 CFR Part 90).

Engines are classified according to displacement volume as shown in Table 7.

Table 7
Small SI engine classification
Engine classificationDisplacement Volume, cm3
HandheldSH1V<20
SH220≤V<50
SH3V≥50
Non-handheldFSH1V<66
FSH266≤V<100
FSH3100≤V<225
FSH4V≥225

Stage 1 limits are shown in Table 8 and Stage 2 limits in Table 9. The durability requirements are shown in Table 10. Two-stroke engines for snow blowers, whether or not they are hand-held, only need to meet the SH1, SH2 or SH3 of the corresponding working volume. For natural gas-fueled engines, NMHC may be used instead of HC.

Table 8
Small SI engine Stage I emission limits, g/kWh
Engine classificationCOHCNOxHC+NOx
SH18052955.36
SH28052415.36
SH36031615.36
FSH151950
FSH251940
FSH351916.1
FSH451913.4
Table 9
Small SI engine Stage II emission limits, g/kWh
Engine classificationCONOxHC+NOx
SH18051050
SH28051050
SH36031072
FSH16101050
FSH26101040
FSH36101016.1
FSH46101013.4
Table 10
Durability requirements for small SI engines, hrs
Engine classificationDurability class
123
SH150125300
SH250125300
SH350125300
FSH150125300
FSH2125250500
FSH3125250500
FSH42505001000