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Emission Standards » India

2- and 3-Wheel Vehicles

Bharat Stage 0-III Standards

Emission standards for 2- and 3-wheelers became effective in 1991. Since then, the standards have been progressively tightened following the consecutive stages of the Bharat emission regulations.

Emission standards for 2- and 3-wheel vehicles through stage BS III are summarized in the following table. Emissions are tested over the India Drive Cycle (IDC).

Table 1
Emission standards for 2- and 3-wheel vehicles, g/km
DateStageCOHCHC+NOxPM
2-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles
199112-308-12--
19964.50-3.60-
2000BS I2.00-2.00-
2005.04BS II1.5-1.5-
2010.04BS III1.0-1.0-
3-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles
199112-308-12--
19966.75-5.40-
2000BS I4.00-2.00-
2005.04BS II2.25-2.00-
2010.04BS III1.25-1.25-
2- and 3-Wheel Diesel Vehicles
2005.04BS II1.00-0.850.10
2010.04BS III0.50-0.500.05

Bharat Stage IV Standards

Bharat Stage IV standards for 2-wheeled gasoline vehicles (motorcycles) were adopted in July 2014 [3102]. BS IV standards introduced several new requirements, including:

  • Tightened NOx+HC emission limits.
  • Harmonization of the emission testing cycle and the definition of motorcycle classes with the UNECE Global Technical Regulation 2 (GTR-2). Beginning with BS IV standards, emissions are tested over the Worldwide Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC).
  • First-ever evaporative emission standards.

The definitions of vehicle categories and test requirements are shown in Table 2. BS IV emission standards are summarized in Table 3.

Table 2
BS IV 2-wheel vehicle classification and testing requirements
ClassDefinition*Test Cycle†
Class 1 50 < D < 150 cc and
Vmax ≤ 50 km/h
or
D < 150 cc and
50 < Vmax < 100 km/h
Part 1 reduced speed cold [0.5] +
Part 1 reduced speed hot [0.5]
Class 2-1 D < 150 cc and
100 ≤ Vmax < 115 km/h
or
D ≥ 150 cc and
Vmax < 115 km/h
Part 1 reduced speed cold [0.5] +
Part 1 reduced speed hot [0.5]
Class 2-2 115 ≤ Vmax < 130 km/h Part 1 cold [0.3] + Part 2 hot [0.7]
Class 3-1 130 < Vmax < 140 km/h Part 1 cold [0.25] + Part 2 hot [0.5] +
Part 3 reduced speed [0.25]
Class 3-2 Vmax ≥ 140 km/h Part 1 cold [0.25] + Part 2 hot [0.5] +
Part 3 [0.25]
* Abbreviations: D - engine displacement; Vmax - maximum design speed.
† WMTC phase sequence. Values in square brackets are weighting factors.
Table 3
BS IV emission standards for 2-wheel gasoline vehicles, g/km
Date*StageClassCONOxHC+NOx†
SHED ≤ 2 gSHED ≤ 6 g
2016.04BS IVClass 1 & 2-11.4030.390.790.59
Class 2-21.9700.340.670.47
Class 3-1 & 3-21.9700.200.400.20
* New type approvals—all models one year later.
† The limit depends on the result of the evaporative emission test (SHED).

The BS IV regulation also included emission standards for mopeds with D ≤ 50 cc and Vmax ≤ 50 km/h. The applicable limits are:

  • CO = 0.75 g/km
  • HC+NOx = 0.75 g/km

Bharat Stage VI Standards

Bharat Stage VI standards for 2- and 3-wheeled vehicles were proposed in February 2016 [3349] (skipping the BS V stage). The proposed limits, Table 4, apply to new model 2-wheeled vehicles and all models of 3-wheeled vehicles. These proposed standards align with Euro 5 limits for these vehicles.

Table 4
Proposed BS VI emission standards for 2- and 3-wheel vehicles, g/km
DateStageTypeCOHCNMHCNOxPM
2-Wheel Vehicles (new models only)
2020.04BS VI SI1.0 0.100.0680.060.0045*
CI0.500.100.0680.090.0045
3-Wheel Vehicles (all models)
2020.04BS VI SI0.440.35-0.085-
CI0.220.10-0.10 0.025
* Gasoline direct injection only

The BS VI emission standards, Table 4, include a 35,000 km durability and Stage II OBD requirements. Spark ignition vehicles must additionally meet an evaporative emission limit of 1.5 g/test.

The BS VI regulation also includes emission standards for 2-wheelers with an SI engine and D ≤ 50 cc and Vmax ≤ 50 km/h. The applicable limits are:

  • CO = 0.50 g/km
  • HC = 0.35 g/km
  • NOx = 0.15 g/km

In November 2015, a draft proposal was published that required vehicles compatible with biodiesel blends up to B100 to certify with both diesel fuel and B100 (see India: Table 2).