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Emission Standards

India: Nonroad Diesel Engines

Construction Machinery

Emission standards for diesel construction machinery were adopted on 21 September 2006. The standards are structured into two tiers:

  • Bharat (CEV) Stage II—These standards are based on the EU Stage I requirements, but also cover smaller engines that were not regulated under the EU Stage I.
  • Bharat (CEV) Stage III—These standards are based on US Tier 2/3 requirements.

The standards are summarized in the following table:

Table 1
Bharat (CEV) emission standards for diesel construction machinery
Engine PowerDateCOHCHC+NOxNOxPM
kWg/kWh
Bharat (CEV) Stage II
P < 8 2008.108.01.3-9.21.00
8 ≤ P < 19 2008.106.61.3-9.20.85
19 ≤ P < 37 2007.106.51.3-9.20.85
37 ≤ P < 75 2007.106.51.3-9.20.85
75 ≤ P < 130 2007.105.01.3-9.20.70
130 ≤ P < 5602007.105.01.3-9.20.54
Bharat (CEV) Stage III
P < 8 2011.048.0-7.5-0.80
8 ≤ P < 19 2011.046.6-7.5-0.80
19 ≤ P < 37 2011.045.5-7.5-0.60
37 ≤ P < 75 2011.045.0-4.7-0.40
75 ≤ P < 130 2011.045.0-4.0-0.30
130 ≤ P < 5602011.043.5-4.0-0.20

The limit values apply for both type approval (TA) and conformity of production (COP) testing. Testing is performed on an engine dynamometer over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) and D2 (5-mode) test cycles.

The Bharat Stage III standards must be met over the useful life periods shown in Table 2. Alternatively, manufacturers may use fixed emission deterioration factors of 1.1 for CO, 1.05 for HC, 1.05 for NOx, and 1.1 for PM.

Table 2
Bharat (CEV) Stage III Useful Life Periods
Power RatingUseful Life Period
hours
< 19 kW3000
19-37 kWconstant speed3000
variable speed5000
> 37 kW8000

Agricultural Tractors

Emission standards for diesel agricultural tractors are summarized in Table 3.

Table 3
Bharat (Trem) emission standards for diesel agricultural tractors
Engine PowerDateCOHCHC+NOxNOxPM
kWg/kWh
Bharat (Trem) Stage I
All1999.1014.03.5-18.0-
Bharat (Trem) Stage II
All2003.069.0-15.0-1.00
Bharat (Trem) Stage III
All2005.105.5-9.5-0.80
Bharat (Trem) Stage III A
P < 8 2010.045.5-8.5-0.80
8 ≤ P < 19 2010.045.5-8.5-0.80
19 ≤ P < 37 2010.045.5-7.5-0.60
37 ≤ P < 75 2011.045.0-4.7-0.40
75 ≤ P < 130 2011.045.0-4.0-0.30
130 ≤ P < 5602011.043.5-4.0-0.20

Emissions are tested over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) cycle. For Bharat (Trem) Stage III A, the useful life periods and deterioration factors are the same as for Bharat (CEV) Stage III, Table 2.

Locomotives

In March 2017, India’s Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) submitted proposed emission standards for diesel locomotives to the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). The proposed limits, outlined in a CPCB Interim Report [3643], are based on emission measurements conducted by CPCB on Indian railways.

Table 4
Proposed locomotive emission standards, g/bhp-hr
Locomotive TypeCOHCNOxPM
Alco type 3.01.0017.00.45
EMD (HHP locomotives)1.41.00 9.00.35

There are two sets of limits: for ALCO type locomotives and for high horsepower EMD locomotives. The standards would be applicable through the useful life of the locomotive. The report proposes to define a compliance protocol—including certification, production line testing, and in-use testing—based on the practice followed by US railroads.