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Emission Standards

India: Nonroad Diesel Engines

Regulatory Background

Bharat (CEV) Stage II - III emission standards for diesel construction machinery were adopted on 21 September 2006. The standards were structured into two tiers:

  • BS (CEV) II—These standards are based on the EU Stage I requirements, but also cover smaller engines that were not regulated under the EU Stage I.
  • BS (CEV) III—These standards are based on US Tier 2/3 requirements.

First standards for agricultural tractors, Bharat (Trem) Stage I, became effective in 1999. From the Bharat (Trem) Stage III A, emission requirements for agricultural tractors became harmonized with those for construction machinery for most engine categories.

On 5 March 2018, India adopted Bharat Stage (CEV/Trem) IV - V [3824] emission standards for diesel nonroad engines used in construction and agricultural equipment. The BS (CEV/Trem) IV emission standards are aligned with EU Stage IV standards, while the BS (CEV/Trem) V standards are aligned with EU Stage V.

Bharat Stage (CEV/Trem) I - III

Construction Machinery

The standards are summarized in the following table. The limit values apply for both type approval (TA) and conformity of production (COP) testing. Testing is performed on an engine dynamometer over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) and D2 (5-mode) test cycles.

Table 1
Bharat (CEV) Stage II - III emission standards for diesel construction machinery
Engine PowerDateCOHCHC+NOxNOxPM
kWg/kWh
Bharat (CEV) Stage II
P < 8 2008.108.01.3-9.21.00
8 ≤ P < 19 2008.106.61.3-9.20.85
19 ≤ P < 37 2007.106.51.3-9.20.85
37 ≤ P < 75 2007.106.51.3-9.20.85
75 ≤ P < 130 2007.105.01.3-9.20.70
130 ≤ P < 5602007.105.01.3-9.20.54
Bharat (CEV) Stage III
P < 8 2011.048.0-7.5-0.80
8 ≤ P < 19 2011.046.6-7.5-0.80
19 ≤ P < 37 2011.045.5-7.5-0.60
37 ≤ P < 75 2011.045.0-4.7-0.40
75 ≤ P < 130 2011.045.0-4.0-0.30
130 ≤ P < 5602011.043.5-4.0-0.20

The Bharat Stage III standards must be met over the useful life periods shown in Table 2. Alternatively, manufacturers may use fixed emission deterioration factors of 1.1 for CO, 1.05 for HC, 1.05 for NOx, and 1.1 for PM.

Table 2
Bharat (CEV) Stage III Useful Life Periods
Power RatingUseful Life Period
hours
< 19 kW3000
19-37 kWconstant speed3000
variable speed5000
> 37 kW8000

Agricultural Tractors

Emission standards for diesel agricultural tractors are summarized in Table 3. Emissions are tested over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) cycle.

Table 3
Bharat (Trem) Stage I - III A emission standards for diesel agricultural tractors
Engine PowerDateCOHCHC+NOxNOxPM
kWg/kWh
Bharat (Trem) Stage I
All1999.1014.03.5-18.0-
Bharat (Trem) Stage II
All2003.069.0-15.0-1.00
Bharat (Trem) Stage III
All2005.105.5-9.5-0.80
Bharat (Trem) Stage III A
P < 8 2010.045.5-8.5-0.80
8 ≤ P < 19 2010.045.5-8.5-0.80
19 ≤ P < 37 2010.045.5-7.5-0.60
37 ≤ P < 75 2011.045.0-4.7-0.40
75 ≤ P < 130 2011.045.0-4.0-0.30
130 ≤ P < 5602011.043.5-4.0-0.20

For Bharat (Trem) Stage III A, the useful life periods and deterioration factors are the same as for Bharat (CEV) Stage III, Table 2.

Bharat Stage (CEV/Trem) IV - V

Bharat Stage (CEV/Trem) IV - V emission standards for nonroad diesel engines used in construction and agricultural equipment are summarized in Table 4 [3824]. The BS IV/V nonroad regulations include no BS IV emission standards for diesel engines with rated power below 37 kW (a category that includes some 90% of ag tractors in India) or for engines above 560 kW, but the BS V standards cover all power ratings. The regulation includes a six month grace period when registrations of equipment complying with the previous set of emission standards is allowed. From April 2026, an in-service conformity check is required for all BS V approved engines manufactured.

Table 4
Bharat (CEV/Trem) Stage IV - V emission standards
Engine PowerDateCOHCNOxPMPNTest Cycle
kWg/kWh1/kWh
Bharat (CEV/Trem) Stage IV
37 ≤ P < 562020.105.04.7*0.025-NRSC and NRTC
56 ≤ P < 130 5.00.190.40.025-
130 ≤ P < 560 3.50.190.40.025-
Bharat (CEV/Trem) Stage V
P < 82024.048.07.5*0.4-NRSC
8 ≤ P < 19 6.67.5*0.4-
19 ≤ P < 37 5.04.7*0.0151×1012NRSC and NRTC
37 ≤ P < 56 5.04.7*0.0151×1012
56 ≤ P < 130 5.00.190.40.0151×1012
130 ≤ P < 560 3.50.190.40.0151×1012
P ≥ 560 3.50.193.50.045-NRSC
* NOx + HC

Engines equipped with SCR must meet an ammonia emission limit of 25 ppm for engines ≤ 56 kW and 10 ppm for engines above 56 kW. The limits are defined as a mean value over the NRTC and NRSC cycles.

The standards must be met over the useful life periods shown in Table 5. Alternatively, manufacturers may use fixed emission deterioration factors of 1.3 for CO, 1.3 for HC, 1.15 for NOx, and 1.05 for PM (NRSC and NRTC).

Table 5
Bharat (CEV/Trem) Stage IV - V Useful Life Periods
Power RatingUseful Life Period
hours
≤ 37 kWconstant speed3000
variable speed5000
> 37 kW8000

Locomotives

In March 2017, India’s Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) submitted proposed emission standards for diesel locomotives to the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).

The proposed limits, outlined in a CPCB Interim Report [3643], are based on emission measurements conducted by CPCB on Indian railways.

Table 6
Proposed locomotive emission standards, g/bhp-hr
Locomotive TypeCOHCNOxPM
Alco type 3.01.0017.00.45
EMD (HHP locomotives)1.41.00 9.00.35

There are two sets of limits: for ALCO type locomotives and for high horsepower EMD locomotives. The standards would be applicable through the useful life of the locomotive. The report proposes to define a compliance protocol—including certification, production line testing, and in-use testing—based on the practice followed by US railroads.