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Emission Standards

India: Cars and Light Trucks

Passenger Cars

Emission standards for passenger cars are summarized in Table 1. Since 2000, the limits are based on the respective stages of EU light-duty vehicle emission standards, and the definition of a passenger car is consistent with the EU vehicle category M1. The pre-2000 limits shown in the table were applicable to passenger cars defined as vehicles of GVW ≤ 2,500 kg with up to 6 seats. Limits for Bharat Stage V were proposed in November 2015 [3297][3298] but were removed from the final Bharat Stage VI regulation [3827]—transitioning the nation directly to BS VI from BS IV.

Table 1
Emission standards for passenger cars
Gasoline Vehicles
India 200020002.72-0.97--
BS II2005.04†2.2-0.5--
BS III2010.04†2.30.20-0.15-
BS IV2017.04†1.00.10-0.08-
BS VI2020.041.00.10a-0.060.0045b6.0×1011b
Diesel Vehicles
India 200020002.72-0.97-0.14
BS II2005.04†1.0-0.7-0.08
BS III2010.04†0.64-0.560.500.05
BS IV2017.04†0.50-0.300.250.025
BS VI2020.040.50-0.170.0800.00456.0×1011
* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see India: Table 1
a and NMHC = 0.068 g/km
b applicable only to vehicles using DI engines

Gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000).

OBD Requirements. OBD I is required from 1 April 2010 (except LPG or CNG-fuelled vehicles and those >3500 kg GVW). OBD II is required from 1 April 2013 for all categories. OBD thresholds for BS V and BS VI vehicles follow those for Euro 5 and 6 vehicles. For BS VI vehicles, thresholds equivalent to Euro 6-1 apply initially and Euro 6-2 starting April 1, 2023.

Light Commercial Vehicles

Since 2000, emission standards for light commercial vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are based on EU emission standards, with implementation dates identical to those for passenger car standards, Table 1.

The applicable vehicle categories are N1 Class I, N1 Class II, N1 Class III, and N2. Category M1, N1, M2 and N2 vehicles with reference mass ≤ 2840 kg can optionally be certified to light-duty chassis emission limits [3349].

Emission Testing

The test cycle has been the NEDC for low-powered vehicles (max. speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle.

In-use compliance test procedures, including real driving emission (RDE) measurement using PEMS, for BS VI vehicles are defined in an Automotive Industry Standard (AIS-137) by the Automotive Research Association of India. RDE testing is required for both type approval and conformity of production (COP). RDE testing is to be carried out from April 2020 for data collection. Conformity with RDE emission standards becomes applicable from April 2023 [3827]. Type approval conformity factors of 1.43 for NOx and 1.5 for PN and in-service conformity factors of 1.5 for CO, THC, NMHC, CH4 and NOx were proposed in 2023 [5941].

BS VI (Euro 6 equivalent) gasoline vehicles are certified with E10 and diesel vehicles with B7. In April 2016, a notification was published that required vehicles compatible with biodiesel blends up to B100 to certify with both diesel fuel and B100 (see India: Table 2) [3304].

Alternative Engine Standards

Through the BS II (Euro II) stage, engines for use in light-duty vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) could be alternatively emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 2.

Table 2
Alternative emission standards for light-duty diesel engines
India 200020004.*Euro I
BS II2005.04† II
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see India: Table 1